Thursday, May 10, 2012

The Egyptian Revolution

From Wikipedia:
Being in Egypt, I am very interested in learning and studying about the Egyptian Revolution.  While Wikipedia IS NOT a great site for researching or writing papers-it does provide some good information. I really like this timeline of the Protests up to the day of the president's resignation. 
Hundreds of thousands of people protest in Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people celebrate in Tahrir Square when Hosni Mubarak's resignation is announced on 11 February 2011
25 January 2011: The "Day of Revolt": Protests erupted throughout Egypt, with tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Cairo and thousands more in cities throughout Egypt. The protests targeted President Hosni Mubarak's government, and mostly adhered to non-violence. There were some reports of civilian and police casualties.

26 January 2011: "Shutting down The Internet and Mobile Services": After several Facebook groups were created and tweets (from Twitter) called for mass demonstrations, the Egyptian government shut down internet access for most of the country.[110] This was done to cripple one of the protesters' main organizational tools and to impede the flow of news and people.

28 January 2011: The "Friday of Anger" protests began. Hundreds of thousands demonstrated in Cairo and other Egyptian cities after Friday prayers. Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei arrived in Cairo. There were reports of looting. Prisons were opened and burned down, allegedly on orders from then-Minister of the Interior Habib El Adly. Prison inmates escaped en masse, in what was believed to be an attempt to terrorise protesters. Police forces were withdrawn from the streets, and the military was deployed. International fears of violence grew, but no major casualties were reported. President Hosni Mubarak made his first address to the nation and pledged to form a new government. Later that night clashes broke out in Tahrir Square between revolutionaries and pro-Mubarak demonstrators, leading to the injury of several and the death of some.

29 January 2011: The military presence in Cairo increased. A curfew was declared, but was widely ignored as the flow of defiant protesters to Tahrir Square continued throughout the night. The military reportedly refused to follow orders to fire live ammunition, and exercised restraint overall. There were no reports of major casualties.

1 February 2011: Mubarak made another televised address and offered several concessions. He pledged to not run for another term in the elections planned for September, and pledged political reforms. He stated he would stay in office to oversee a peaceful transition. Small but violent clashes began that night between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak groups.

2 February 2011: "Battle of the Camel". Violence escalated as waves of Mubarak supporters met anti-government protesters, and some Mubarak supporters rode on camels and horses into Tahrir Square, reportedly wielding swords and sticks. President Mubarak reiterated his refusal to step down in interviews with several news agencies. Incidents of violence toward journalists and reporters escalated amid speculation that the violence was being encouraged by Mubarak as a way to bring the protests to an end.

6 February 2011: A multifaith Sunday Mass was held with Egyptian Christians and Egyptian Muslims in Tahrir Square. Negotiations involving Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman and representatives of the opposition commenced amid continuing protests throughout the nation. The Egyptian army assumed greater security responsibilities, maintaining order and guarding The Egyptian Museum of Antiquity. Suleiman offered reforms, while others of Mubarak's regime accused foreign nations, including the US, of interfering in Egypt's affairs.

10 February 2011: Mubarak formally addressed Egypt amid speculation of a military coup, but rather than resigning (as was widely expected), he simply stated he would delegate some of his powers to Vice President Suleiman, while continuing as Egypt's head of state. Reactions to Mubarak's statement were marked by anger, frustration and disappointment, and throughout various cities there was an escalation of the number and intensity of demonstrations.

11 February 2011: The "Friday of Departure": Massive protests continued in many cities as Egyptians refused the concessions announced by Mubarak. Finally, at 6:00 pm local time, Suleiman announced Mubarak's resignation, entrusting the Supreme Council of Egyptian Armed Forces with the leadership of the country. Nationwide celebrations immediately followed.

Under Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 1 April 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 8 April 2011
Tens of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 27 May 2011
13 February 2011: The Supreme Council dissolved Egypt’s parliament and suspended the Constitution in response to demands by demonstrators. The council declared that it would hold power for six months, or until elections could be held. Calls were made for the council to provide more details and specific timetables and deadlines. Major protests subsided but did not end. In a gesture to a new beginning, protesters cleaned up and renovated Tahrir Square, the epicenter of the demonstrations, although many pledged they would continue protests until all the demands had been met.

17 February 2011: The army stated it would not field a candidate in the upcoming presidential elections.[111] Four important figures of the former regime were detained on that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi former tourism minister Zuheir Garana, and steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz.[112]
2 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was tentatively scheduled for 19 March 2011.[113]

3 March 2011: A day before large protests against him were planned, Ahmed Shafik stepped down as Prime Minister and was replaced by Essam Sharaf.[114]

5 March 2011: Several State Security Intelligence (SSI) buildings were raided across Egypt by protesters, including the headquarters for Alexandria Governorate and the main national headquarters in Nasr City, Cairo. Protesters stated they raided the buildings to secure documents they believed to show various crimes committed by the SSI against the people of Egypt during Mubarak's rule.[115][116]

6 March 2011: From the Nasr City headquarters, protesters acquired evidence of mass surveillance and vote rigging, and noted rooms full of videotapes, piles of shredded and burned documents, and cells where activists recounted their experiences of detention and torture.[117]
19 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was held and passed by 77.27%.[118]
22 March 2011: Parts of the Interior Ministry building caught fire during police demonstrations outside.[119]

23 March 2011: The Egyptian Cabinet orders a law criminalising protests and strikes that hampers work at private or public establishments. Under the new law, anyone organising or calling for such protests will be sentenced to jail and/or a fine of LE500,000 (~100,000 USD).[120]

1 April 2011: The "Save the Revolution" day: Approximately four thousand demonstrators filled Tahrir Square for the largest protest in weeks, demanding that the ruling military council move faster to dismantle lingering aspects of the old regime.[121] Protestors demanded trial for Hosni Mubarak, Gamal Mubarak, Ahmad Fathi Sorour, Safwat El-Sherif and Zakaria Azmi as well.

8 April 2011: The "Friday of Cleaning": Hundreds of thousands of demonstrators again filled Tahrir Square, criticizing the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for not following through on revolutionary demands. They demanded the resignation of remaining regime figures and the removal of Egypt’s public prosecutor due to the slow pace of investigations of corrupt former officials.[122]

27 May 2011: The "Second Friday of Anger" (a.k.a. "Second Revolution of Anger" or "The Second Revolution"): Tens of thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square in Egypt's capital Cairo,[123] besides[citation needed] perhaps demonstrators in each of Alexandria, Suez, Ismailia, Gharbeya and other areas; in the largest demonstrations since ousting Mubarak's Regime. Protestors demanded no military trials for civilians, the Egyptian Constitution to be made before the Parliament elections and for all members of the old regime and those who killed protestors in January and February to be put on fair trial.

1 July 2011: The "Friday of Retribution"; Hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered in Suez, Alexandria and Tahrir Square in Cairo, to voice frustration with the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for what they called the slow pace of change five months after the revolution, some also feared that the military is to rule Egypt indefinitely.[124]

8 July 2011: The "Friday of Determination"; Hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered in Suez, Alexandria and Tahrir Square in Cairo. They demanded immediate reforms and swifter prosecution of former officials from the ousted government.[125]

15 July 2011"': Hundreds of thousands continue to protest in Tahrir Square.

23 July 2011: Thousands of protesters try to march to the Defense Ministry. They are met with thugs that have sticks, stones, cocktails and other things. The protests are set off by a speech commemorating the 1952 coup led by Mohammed Tantawi.

1 August 2011: Egyptian soldiers clash with protesters, tearing down tents. Over 66 people were arrested. Most Egyptians supported the military's action.

6 August 2011 Hundreds of protesters gathered and prayed in Tahrir Square. After they were done, they were attacked by the military.

9 September 2011: The "2011 Israeli embassy attack"; The"Friday of Correcting the Path"; Tens of thousands of people protested Suez, Alexandria, Cairo, and other cites. Islamist protesters were absent.

9 October 2011: The "Maspero demonstrations"; Late into the evening of 9 October, during a protest that was held in Maspiro,[126] peaceful Egyptian protesters, calling for the dissolution the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the resignation of its chairman, Field Marshal Mohamed Tantawi, and the dismissal of the governor of Aswan province, were attacked by military police. At least 25 people[127] were killed and more than 200 wounded.

19 November 2011: Clashes first erupt in Tahrir Square as demonstrators reoccupy the location in central Cairo. Central Security Forces deploy tear gas in an attempt to control the situation.[128]

20 November 2011: Police forces attempt to forcibly clear the square, but protesters soon return in more than twice their original numbers. Fierce fighting breaks out and continues through the night, with the police again using tear gas, beating and shooting demonstrators.[128]

21 November 2011: Demonstrators return to the square, with Coptic Christians standing guard as Muslims protesting the regime pause for prayers. The Health Ministry says at least 23 have died and over 1,500 have been wounded since 19 November.[128] Solidarity protests are held in Alexandria, Suez, and at least five other major Egyptian cities.[129] Dissident journalist Hossam el-Hamalawy tells Al Jazeera that Egyptians will launch a general strike because they have "had enough" of the SCAF.[130]

23 January 2012: Democratically elected representatives of the People’s Assembly met for the first time since Egypt’s revolution, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces transferred legislative authority to them.

24 January 2012: Military ruler Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi said the decades-old state of emergency will be lifted partially on Wednesday 25 January.

12 April 2012: An administrative court suspended the 100-member constitutional assembly tasked with drafting a new constitution

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